Friday, October 24, 2014

UPDATED: Up to 125 CWD-exposed deer imported into Ohio may have been supplied by five Pennsylvania vendors

Armed with the knowledge that chronic wasting disease has appeared in a captive white-tailed buck in Ohio's Holmes County, details are beginning to emerge as to the source - or sources - of possibly other infected animals.

With the acknowledgement that at least one animal has tested positive for CWD, Ohio becomes the 14th state where the disease has cropped up in at least one deer.

Ohio Department of Agriculture media relations spokeswoman Erica M. Hawkins says that up to 125 deer may have been exposed to the always fatal prion-based disease. All of the deer came from Pennsylvania with up to five possible candidate breeders, Hawkins says.

Hawkins says as well that once CWD was confirmed in Pennsylvania's captive-raised deer-breeding operations, Ohio's Agricultural Department moved immediately to "close its boarders" to any more deer imports from that state.

"It must be emphasized that none of the Ohio operations which imported deer from Pennsylvania did anything wrong," Hawkins said.

The one known case of a captive deer - a three-year-old buck and not a seven-year-old buck as has been commonly cited in the media - which tested positive for CWD came from the "World Class Whitetails of Ohio" big-game hunting preserve (www.bestdeerohio.com). This operation is located near Millersburg in Holmes County.

World Class Whitetails of Ohio quietly has been under quarantine since April 15.

Originally 43 Ohio entities were under Ohio's quarantine protocols. In all, 22 of these operations saw their quarantines lifted once the Agriculture Department confirmed through testing that no CWD existed in their respective captive deer herds.

However, quarantines continue to exist with the remaining operations, including five big-game hunting preserves, of which World Class Whitetails of Ohio is one.

Ohio has 539 licensed deer-breeding operations, each required to obtain their permits from the Agriculture Department, not the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. It is the former that was prescribed the lead agency in managing captive deer-breeding operations.

Hawkins says also a list of he operations which received the deer from Pennsylvania and which remains under quarantine is being compiled now and will be made available Monday morning.

A telephone message and an e-mail request seeking comment have been left with World Class Whitetails of Ohio but have not yet been returned. As of late Friday (October 24) the operation's web site has not posted any comments regarding the CWD discovery in one of the ranch's harvested bucks.

Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net











A Chronic Wasting Disease primer - adjunct to the immediately previous blog post



The prion’s very name says it all: Derived from “protein,” a prion is an infectious misshapen protein.

It is not a living entity; not even on the order of the simplest bacteria. Nor is it a virus, which more than a few scientists say is a “thing” that is “almost life.”

Prions have neither DNA nor RNA. It attacks mammals only and is considered what’s called a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease that recruits via converting healthy proteins into the misshapen form.

In effect, the prion seeks to duplicate itself over and over again. As this insidious process expands, holes in an infected animal’s nervous system – including and perhaps, especially, the brain – develop. Such a condition results in the organ becoming sponge-like matter; hence the application of the word “spongiform.”

As a result, some scientists refer to prions as “killer proteins.”

Consequently, something so seemingly simple that isn’t even alive is a complex process that still baffles the scientific community. The Centers for Disease Control notes this paradox by saying that prions “… are still not completely understood” yet notes that “Prion diseases are usually rapidly progressive and always fatal.”

In humans, the Disease Centers also say, they are four known prion-linked disease. Chronic Wasting Disease is not one of them.

The Disease Center says as well that science knows of six prion-linked diseases in animals, CWD being one of them.

Known CWD- impacted animal species include elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and moose, the Disease Centers says.

Though the delivery mechanism is yet to be fully understood the Disease Centers does say that scientific speculation suggests direct animal-to-animal contact and/or “indirect exposure” through CWD-contaminated food or water sources are likely the culprits.

Yet while such organizations as the Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance says that research “suggests that humans, cattle and other domestic livestock are resistant to natural (CWD) transmission” such infection still “remains a concern.”

This, in spite of the fact that no human has been known to contract CWD under any circumstances, natural or otherwise.

The Illinois Department of Natural Resources says that disease signs in deer include excessive salivation, loss of appetite, progressive weight loss, excessive thirst and urination, listlessness, teeth grinding, and holding the head in a lowered position as well as drooping ears.

Likewise, the agency says an infected deer may not display symptoms for as many as 18 months.

“In fact, 94-percent of the deer from Illinois that have tested positive for CWD have otherwise appeared healthy,” the agency says in a question and answer document on the subject.

- Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net





Thursday, October 23, 2014

BREAKING & UPDATED: First Case OF CWD Confirmed In Ohio On Hunting Preserve

This is the just-released joint notice by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources and the Ohio Department of Agriculture that CWD has appeared in a sampled Ohio deer. The animal - a buck - originally came from Pennsylvania and was transferred to an unnamed Ohio big-game hunting preserve, located in Holmes County. This story will be updated pending further information requested of both Natural Resources and Agricultural Department spokeswomen. - Jeffrey L. Frischkorn 

UPDATED with the following additions as of 9 p.m., October: 23:

With the confirmation of a CWD-contaminated deer, Ohio now becomes the 14th state in which the always-fatal disease has been discovered in a captive deer herd.

The CWD-infected buck deer came from the "World Class Whitetails of Ohio" big-game hunting preserve near Millersburg in Holmes County, news accounts citing an Ohio Department of Agriculture official.

The preserve's web site (www.bestdeerohio.com) says it offers three day/two night hunts with several  bucks in the 260-inch class being available and prides itself on a 99.8-percent success rate.

While a detailed list of hunt costs was not found, the ranch's web site does post a special for $6,900.

An email has been sent to World Class Whitetails of Ohio seeking comment and additional information about the CWD-infected buck deer.


And a spokeswoman for the Ohio Division of Wildlife says the agency's efforts now will continue with its monitoring program. That application will include collecting deer heads from road kills, hunter-generated harvests, processed deer, taxidermy shops as ell as increasing "Our outreach to the local community," says Susie Vance, a Wildlife Division spokeswoman. 

Not one the agenda - at least not yet - is a prohibitive order from the Wildlife Division to cease the baiting of deer by hunters within a prescribed zone around any site found to be contaminated with CWD. In most states with a confirmed positive CWD finding and where baiting is legal, such a restriction is common.

Ohio's wildlife managers have discussed an interest in adopting such protocols should CWD ever be found in the state.

But Vance says that option is not yet in the picture.

"Regarding the wild population, the regulation of feeding deer is not our focus at this time," Vance said.

As for acting prudently and swiftly, Vance said the Agriculture Department did outstanding detective work in backtracking the sale of deer into Ohio from Pennsylvania deer-breeding businesses. Pennsylvania is a state known to harbor CWD-infected deer.

"Had we known the deer was infected up front we certainly would not have allowed the animal into Ohio," Vance said as well. "And since the finding we don't allow the importation of any deer from any other state."

A request for the names and locations of the still-under-quarantine big-game hunting preserves and deer farms is being worked by the Ohio Department of Agriculture, an agency spokeswoman said.

This story will either be updated as further information becomes available or else will become a separate blog posting. 





"REYNOLDSBURG, OHIO – The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) and the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) today confirmed the first positive case of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the state in a captive deer herd in Holmes County. The state continues to take quarantine action to control the further spread of the disease. There is no evidence that CWD has affected the wild deer population in the state.

"The positive sample was taken from a single buck on a hunting preserve in Millersburg and tested as part of Ohio’s CWD monitoring program for captive white-tailed deer operations. The preserve had been under quarantine since April 24, 2014, and was subject to intensive monitoring and sampling protocols because of a known connection to a captive deer operation in Pennsylvania that tested positive for CWD earlier this year. The quarantine will remain enforced until the state is satisfied that disease transference can no longer occur.

“Ohio’s captive white-tail deer licensing program was enacted two years ago for the purpose of continuously monitoring the heath of the captive deer populations in the state to manage the spread of and exposure to diseases such as CWD. We have worked closely with the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture to identify and trace back positive cases,” said State Veterinarian Dr. Tony Forshey. “We will continue to take aggressive steps to ensure that CWD does not pose a threat to the state’s wild deer population.”

"The state has quarantined 43 captive deer operations in Ohio since April 15, 2014, for receiving approximately 125 deer from operations in Pennsylvania that later tested positive for CWD. Twenty-two of those quarantines were lifted after negative CWD test results were confirmed in 53 of the suspect animals from Pennsylvania. ODA will continue to enforce quarantine restrictions on 21 operations, including five hunting preserves, until the department is satisfied that the threat of disease transference has passed.

"The disease is fatal in deer, elk and moose, but there is no evidence CWD can be transmitted to humans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and The World Health Organization. Though no human disease has been associated with CWD, the CDC recommends, as a precaution, that people or other animals do not eat any part of an animal diagnosed with or showing signs of CWD.

“We have no reason to believe that there has been transference to the state’s wild deer population,” said Scott Zody, chief of the ODNR Division of Wildlife. “With hunting season in progress, there are no CWD concerns that should prevent anyone from enjoying wild deer hunting in Ohio or from consuming meat from healthy animals.”

"The ODNR Division of Wildlife is recommending that hunters continue to take standard precautions such as shooting only animals that appear healthy, wearing rubber gloves when field-dressing their deer and washing thoroughly when finished. If hunters should observe a deer that appears unhealthy, they are encouraged to contact their local wildlife office or officer.

"Since 2002, the state has conducted surveillance throughout Ohio for the disease. State and federal officials will continue this regular sampling and testing throughout the hunting season to continue to monitor the health of the state’s wild deer population. Tissue samples from 753 deer killed on Ohio’s roads were collected from September 2013 through March 2014 and were tested for CWD.

"An additional 88 hunter-harvested mature white-tailed deer and nine deer displaying symptoms consistent with CWD were tested as well and were all negative.

"In response to this positive finding, the ODNR Division of Wildlife will increase sampling efforts in the wild deer population within six miles of the hunting preserve from which the CWD-positive deer came as well as near the other captive operations that are under quarantine. Those samples will include high-risk animals such as those killed on roads or exhibiting neurological symptoms as well as hunter-harvested deer in the area.

"CWD, first discovered in captive mule deer in Colorado in 1967, attacks the brains of infected deer, elk and moose, producing small lesions that eventually result in death. It is transmitted by direct animal-to-animal contact through saliva, feces and urine.

"Signs of the disease include weight loss, excessive salivation, increased drinking and urination, and abnormal behavior like stumbling, trembling and depression. Infected deer and elk may also allow unusually close approach by humans or natural predators. The disease is fatal in deer, and there is no known treatment or vaccine."

- Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net

Monday, October 20, 2014

Ohio's increasingly complex deer hunting regs reflected in to-date harvest figures



Statistics are truth-tellers though sometimes knowing this reality can result in even greater doubt than if you were lied to.

It’s been a slow-go for Ohio’s ever-so-long archery deer-hunting season. For me, anyway, it would seem.

To date I have hunted for a combined 41 hours from four ground blinds split between three Northeast Ohio counties. During this time I have seen two deer, including a small doe that my new crossbow has managed to prove itself.

Absent were any deer seen in four separate stints in a Geauga County blind and a like goose-egg seen during time spent in a Lake County igloo-shaped blind that I’ve nestled against the trunk of a plump cherry tree.

If it were not for one of two blinds set in individual central Ashtabula County woodlots my sightings would be less than tolerable for 41 hours of picket duty.

Burr, the chill of this year’s to-date archery hunting season has placed a deep freeze on my success. Yet that is me, and apparently not for Ohio’s bow-hunting clan as a whole.

For the season through Sunday (October 19) and heralding back to when the archery deer-hunting season began on September 27, Ohio’s deer harvest stands at 24,494 animals verses the corresponding 2013 to-date figure of 23,552 whitetails for a net gain of 4 percent.

Okay, here we’ll put in one of those record book asterisks (*) that statisticians are always so eager to toss out. That addendum is the result of a pretty good antlerless-only/muzzle-loading-only deer hunting season October 11 and 12.

During this season, Ohio deer hunters killed 6,613 animals compared to the 5,608 animals that hunters shot during the same season in 2013. So the muzzle-loading season did fuel the to-date kill by 1,005 deer.

Thus the overall harvest/kill figure is skewered by a larger antlerless-only/muzzle-loading-only season. I get that; I really do, too.

What I’m still puzzled over is the lack of deer I’ve failed to see along with reports from other archers I know who likewise are not encountering whitetails.

Some of the hunters are saying the hard mast crop – chiefly the fruit of the white oak trees, or acorns – is too abundant this year. And more than a few hunters contend the state’s coyote pack is out of control and has decimated the state’s deer herd.

Meanwhile just about every deer hunter is grumbling that the Ohio Division of Wildlife went too far for too long in selling too many antlerless-only deer tags.

That “sell-buy-sell-buy” attitude has claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of fawn-producing does, hunters allege.

Of course, Ohio hunters were not compelled to buy (and use) these antlerless-only deer tags. It was our choice from the get-go, so pointing a finger at the Wildlife Division solely is not being exactly honest with ourselves.

And as a result we see harvest/kill increases where antlerless-only tags are still legal tender and either the status quo or declines in most counties were such permits cannot be used.

Examples: Up here in Northeast Ohio, the to-date deer harvest/kill for Ashtabula County where the use of antlerless-only permits is permitted stands at 761 animals. That figure is an 8.56 percent increase from the 2013 to-date total harvest/kill figure of 701 animals.

Much the same can be said for Lake County where the use of antlerless-only permits also remains valid. This year’s to-date harvest/kill figure for Lake County through October 19 is 209 animals. And for 2013’s to-date harvest/kill total the figure was 168. 
Here we are talking about a whopping 24.4 percent increase.

Yet for Lake and Ashtabula County’s neighbor, Geauga County, we see just the opposite in the to-date deer/harvest/kill figures. So far in 2014, 335 deer have been taken in Geauga County; or an 11.84 percent drop from the same period in 2013.

Oh, I forgot to mention that the use of antlerless-only deer tags is forbidden in Geauga County this year.

Meanwhile, some other illustrations where antlerless-only deer tags are not valid this year and the harvest/kill is down include Harrison County (down 5.56 percent), Williams County (down 10.36 percent), Jefferson County (down 12 percent), Belmont County (down 22.53 percent), and Washington County (down 10 percent).

Even so, not every county where the use of antlerless-only permits is invalid has seen a drop in their to-date deer harvest/kill figures. Examples here include Jackson County (up 11.78 percent), Guernsey County (statistically unchanged at 464 to-date this year and 467 to-date last year), Van Wert County (up 18.46 percent), and Muskingum County (up 3.78 percent).

Generally speaking, however, the numbers of counties where antlerless-only tags are invalid this year have thus far experienced declines in their harvest. That note is exactly the goal of the Wildlife Division’s deer-management biologists.

Consequently, it would appear that as Ohio’s deer management activities become more complex in order to address the state’s herd size patchwork so too have the rules become increasingly intricate.

All of which may or may not explain why I’ve seen so few deer after spending so many hours in hunting blinds in three different counties. I don’t know but I’m guessing that I’m simply being in the wrong blind at the right time.

- Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net




Thursday, October 16, 2014

Reading the fishers' minds: AnglerSurvey.com brings out its spy glass



Anglers are predictable enough that surveys geared to picking their brains tread on stating the obvious.

Even so, the work done by Fernandina, Florida-based Southwick Associates and its “AnglerServey.com” does help the sport fishing industry better understand the full nature of sport fishers’ buying habits.

Such a comprehension enables tackle makers gear their product production to what will move the quickest and with the best possible profit margin.

Ditto for the retailer, be it a mom and pop bait shop, a big box corporation, Internet source, or a major catalog company which logs off several forests each year in order to provide the paper for the never-ending supply of seasonal supplements and updates.

And for the consumer it comes down as often as not to price point; the best deal for the money.

Yet Southwick’s AnglerSurvey.com does also reveal that anglers tend to be a conservative and frugal lot when it comes to buying equipment.

For instance, the latest edition of AnglerSurvey.com shows that of those anglers who bought fishing-related equipment in the July-August survey period, over 2/3s of them bought fishing lures and baits while one-half plucked down their dollars for terminal tackle (sinkers and – chiefly – hooks).

Yet in spite of this supposedly being the era of the Internet where and when simply “everybody” buys on-line, the survey shows that just 25-percent of fishing reels were made via the electronic superhighway.

Not surprising either is that when it comes to hard (plastic) baits/lures, Rapalas were the brand bought “… in every period.” AnglerSurvey.com says.

Neither startling is that Zoom was the soft plastic lure of choice.

Meanwhile, when anglers wanted to buy hard plastic baits, soft plastic baits and spinnerbaits they went to an outdoor specialty store while the typically inexpensive jig was purchased at a local tackle/bait store.

As for what fresh-water sport anglers sought, yep, the largemouth bass came out on top; a real no-brainer and hardly a stunning revelation. Nearly 57 percent of fresh-water anglers sought the largemouth bass.

Next came panfish, followed by catfish. Yes, catfish.

As for walleye, that species ranked only seventh in popularity; ahead of muskies but behind trout.

For Ohio’s steelheaders here is couple of sobering statistics. More surveyed anglers said they fished for carp (5.5 percent) than fished for both salmon (5.1 percent) and steelhead (2.3 percent). Indeed more fresh-water anglers sought white bass than salmon and steelhead.

Again, none of this should come as a surprise as previous AnglerSurvey.com studies have pretty much demonstrated the same pecking order.

And one of those “huh” moments came with the survey’s note that nearly 63 percent of salt-water anglers used live bait and just under 60 percent either used artificial lures only or in addition to live bait.

Yet these two categories are reversed for fresh-water anglers. Fully 77.4 percent of fresh-water anglers used artificial lures while 46.5 percent of them used live bait either exclusively or in addition to artificial bait.

In each style of fishing, however, angling from shore was important as 59 percent of fresh-water anglers fished from land, shore, beach, pier or dock while 41 percent of salt-water anglers did the same, the survey says.

Of course, fishing from a powerboat – including those owned and operated by charter skippers - was important for both classes of anglers.

Another “huh” is that 9 percent of salt-water anglers said they fished from a kayak; one percent more than the number of fresh-water anglers who said they fished from one of the paddle-sport vessels.

Let’s look at fishing line purchases for a moment and here we see a still-stubborn reliance on the less-expensive and ubiquitous monofilament. While 25.5 percent of anglers said they used the expensive slate of fluorocarbon lines and 32.2 percent used the superlines and braids, 40 percent of anglers still spool up with the ageless mono lines. Of course, as the figures suggest, some anglers seem to tailor their fishing line to the type of water or fish species they are seeking.

One also might think that fly-fishing anglers go gaga over buying one of the ever-expanding types of rods and reels, be it large-arbor, centerpin, spay, high-tech fiberglass, or whatever.

But even here the survey demonstrates a conservative buying trend.

By far the overwhelming amount of fly-fishing-related equipment involves finished flies, fly-tying materials, tippet material, leaders, and hooks.
Rods and reels aren’t even in the same ballpark. Flyrods rank ninth in purchases (squeezed between strike indicators and fly boxes) with fly reels ranking 14th (tucked between flyline backing and fly-fishing nets). Nets – imagine that.

Do take note that fly-fishing anglers remain a studious lot as “books” are heralded as their 18th most common purchase. Shoot, “books” don’t even register with the rest of the fresh-water and salt-water angling clans.

In noting impediments to angling the survey’s respondents said “access to water,” “water quality,” “invasive species,” and “too many disruptive activities on the water such as water-skiers and personal watercraft users” as “the biggest problem facing fishing today.”

It almost seems like the responding anglers were looking for an excuse as to why they weren’t out on the lake, on the stream or the surf. Oh, well, AnglerSurvey.com just presents the data and leaves the interpretation up to the end users.

Ending, the AnglerSurvey.com results show that the majority of respondents just as soon preferred not to fish in the company of a child. Some 34 percent had not fished with a child within the past year, 19.5 percent took one youngster, and 21.1 percent led two youngsters to the fishes.

Predictable to a fault perhaps, 44.1 percent of the youngsters an angler did mentor were a son or a daughter, 16.8 percent took in tow and grandson or granddaughter, while 16.5 percent shepherded a nephew, niece or “other relative.”

Only 17.4 percent assisted an “unrelated young person” and just 5.2 percent took upon the mantle of angling role model to a Scout, church or other youth group.

So there you have it; the ins and outs of what we anglers buy, fish for, where we fish, and finally how we go about recruiting the next generation of fishers.

It’s all food for thought, as the AnglerSurvey.com results always are, of course.

- Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net



Jeff is the retired News-Herald reporter who  covered the earth sciences, the area's three county park systems and the outdoors for the newspaper. During his 30 years with The News-Herald Jeff was the recipient of more than 100 state, regional and national journalism awards. He also is a columnist and features writer for the Ohio Outdoor News, which is published every other week and details the outdoors happenings in the state.


Monday, October 13, 2014

UPDATED with season's harvest figures: Sometimes quiet is enough for a deer season opener



Days like this are worth the price of admission; and they offer the hunter the opportunity to savor the woods’ serene early autumn splendor.

Savor, indeed, with the mixed pungency of drying corn stalks, ripened earth and a brew of various types of hardwoods on the cusp of shedding their leaves in preparation for a long winter’s nap.

A cloud-filled sky was moving rather swiftly west to east, thwarting the necessary light to finish the remaining minutes of the second day of Ohio’s two-day, antlerless-only, muzzle-loading-only deer-hunting season.

Warmer that was Day One, Day Two was never-the-less comfortable enough that allowed for the deliberate leaving behind of a fleece vest. Also not needed was any requirement for long-john underwear.

Then again, a couple of pre-dawn mornings had sapped the strength of Ashtabula County’s normally ubiquitous buzzing/biting insect population. That was a good thing, too, especially since I had left my Thermacell bug repelling gizmo back in the SUV along with the fleece vest.

Hope’s propellers spun pretty reliably, given that several hours earlier the landowner’s son had missed one doe as it tried a sneak out of the standing corn. And when the muzzle-loader had gone “bang,” the doe bolted untouched. Yet the noise was load enough to startle another half-dozen or so deer to vacate the same field.

Such was my confidence that I might find the deer oozing their way back into the same corn patch, tracing a strait-as-an-arrow rusted logging pathway to the free and abundant meal.

Thing was, Day One had not gone particularly well, either. I had spent 11 ½ hours in a hunting blind. All for naught as I failed to so much as even see a deer, let alone one absent the prohibitive set of antlers demanded by law for this special and early deer-hunting season.

So I figured a change of scenery was in order, and given the encouraging prospects of what the landowner’s son encountered I placed my chips down on the table.

Yet there are no assurances when it comes to hunting white-tailed deer. That’s true whether the hunt happens in Ohio, Texas, Wisconsin or wherever. Ditto that second weather the hunt occurs in Guernsey County, Adams County or Ashtabula County.

So I packed up my meager stash of muzzle-loading supplies and hiked the short distance from the woodlot’s far southwest corner to the SUV, waiting on a tractor path turn-around.

Hey, it happens, yeah it does. But I will say this; Day Two was one of those times when I felt especially blessed and privileged to be a hunter. Thus, no apologies are necessary, either.

UPDATE – Here is the harvest data for Ohio’s recently held two-day/antlerless-only/muzzle-loading-only deer-hunting season.

All figures and comments are supplied by the Ohio Division of Wildlife.

COLUMBUS, OH – Ohio’s muzzleloader hunters checked 6,613 antlerless white-tailed deer during a two-day season, Oct. 11-12, according to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). That is an 18 percent increase from 2013, when hunters checked 5,608 deer, the first year for the antlerless muzzleloader season.

The Ohio counties that reported the most checked deer during the 2014 antlerless-only muzzleloader season: Ashtabula (228), Columbiana (180), Coshocton (177), Licking (164), Tuscarawas (151), Guernsey (150), Trumbull (147), Stark (145), Knox (143) and Adams (142).

An additional 1,313 deer were harvested by archery hunters on Oct. 11-12. The total number of antlerless deer checked by hunters during the two days was 7,926, a 21 percent increase from 2013 (6,553).

Editor’s Note: A list of all white-tailed deer checked by muzzleloader hunters during the 2014 antlerless muzzleloader hunting season, Oct. 11-12, is shown below. The first number following the county’s name shows the harvest numbers for the antlerless muzzleloader hunting season in 2014, and the 2013 harvest numbers are in parentheses. The antlerless muzzleloader harvest numbers do not include archery numbers.

Adams: 142 (135); Allen: 41 (46); Ashland: 141 (111); Ashtabula: 228 (200); Athens: 133 (117); Auglaize: 42 (39); Belmont: 75 (99); Brown: 88 (94); Butler: 62 (57); Carroll: 133 (120); Champaign: 51 (36); Clark: 39 (28); Clermont: 76 (91); Clinton: 39 (34); Columbiana: 180 (128); Coshocton: 177 (138); Crawford: 41 (32); Cuyahoga: 4 (5); Darke: 41 (26); Defiance: 65 (48); Delaware: 64 (38); Erie: 30 (25); Fairfield: 81 (51); Fayette: 12 (7); Franklin: 29 (9); Fulton: 26 (29); Gallia: 93 (60); Geauga: 60 (63); Greene: 20 (26); Guernsey: 150 (144); Hamilton: 19 (18); Hancock: 33 (31); Hardin: 42 (43); Harrison: 115 (115); Henry: 28 (14); Highland: 100 (79); Hocking: 109 (103); Holmes: 103 (89); Huron: 96 (80); Jackson: 85 (62); Jefferson: 75 (82); Knox: 143 (141); Lake: 25 (18); Lawrence: 56 (54); Licking: 164 (164); Logan: 102 (77); Lorain: 115 (83); Lucas: 19 (28); Madison: 14 (19); Mahoning: 100 (75); Marion: 27 (27); Medina: 80 (68); Meigs: 128 (88); Mercer: 36 (26); Miami: 34 (20); Monroe: 59 (68); Montgomery: 25 (18); Morgan: 108 (65); Morrow: 56 (53); Muskingum: 136 (143); Noble: 79 (83); Ottawa: 24 (10); Paulding: 53 (56); Perry: 92 (54); Pickaway: 23 (18); Pike: 64 (51); Portage: 86 (64); Preble: 44 (41); Putnam: 32 (33); Richland: 98 (105); Ross: 94 (85); Sandusky: 41 (27); Scioto: 59 (64); Seneca: 83 (69); Shelby: 63 (63); Stark: 145 (66); Summit: 20 (9); Trumbull: 147 (117); Tuscarawas: 151 (115); Union: 58 (32); Van Wert: 20 (19); Vinton: 129 (79); Warren: 45 (39); Washington: 65 (72); Wayne: 104 (83); Williams: 69 (93); Wood: 42 (16) and Wyandot: 88 (58).Total: 6,613 (5,608).

- Jeffrey L. Frischkorn
JFrischk@Ameritech.net